Where Angels Fear to Dream…
Foreward – A History of Evolution in Marxist Theory

A Theory of Evolution

These crude, fragmented and somewhat child-like verses are, in essence, a stab in the half light at a truthful and scientific approach of how Nature, primarily, then Society, evolve from low forms to high forms from early civilisation to the present day.

Marx, Engels, Trotsky and Lenin

This story is loosely based on the teachings of Marx, Engels, Trotsky and Lenin, who died in 1924 long before black holes had been discovered in the outer reaches of the universe or any theoretical knowledge of the tiny quark* had been elaborated. Lenin once wrote:

‘The splitting of a single whole and the cognition of its contradictory parts is the principle, one of the essentials, characteristics or features of dialectics.
  • In Mathematics: Plus and Minus, Differential and Integral:
  • In Mechanics: Action and Reaction;
  • In Physics: Positive and Negative Electricity;
  • In Chemistry: the Combination and Dissociation of Atoms;
  • In Social Sciences: the Class Struggle.


Imperialism, the highest stage of capitalism, is historically doomed and like other social systems before it, can, must, and will be superseded if humanity is to survive.


Socialism or barbarism: thus the question is inexorably posed. This story is directed to the successful outcome of the former and I hope it will encourage all revolutionary fighters and members of the Fourth International to study the authors herein mentioned, in order to arm ourselves for a theoretical understanding so necessary for our victory in the coming battles. To study, not in a passive way but an active sensuous way, similar to the way we study the highway code when learning to drive a car or, a road map before embarking on a journey.


No one knows what a really socialist society will bring; let alone a communist one. Contrary to popular belief, we have never had either. Pre-written history yes, when we lived in communes, modern history no.

We do know of course that the release of the productive forces from private ownership for profit will facilitate a huge leap in our own development. What we will do with ourselves or how we will develop, who can say?

The Future?

So the reader will bear with me if, when dealing with the future, I fall back on my own imagination, mount my noble steed Pegasus and fly back to the stars from whence we came.

Marxism | Socialism | Communism

* Quark – kwörk. n. any of a triplet of particles, not yet found suggested as the units out of which all other subatomic particles are formed. [From word coined by James Joyce in Finnegan’s Wake.]
Chambers 20th Century Dictionary 1983